Knowledge Base - All Children Learn

Knowledge Base

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Knowledge Base

Related Services

Services defined by federal law whose purpose is to assist a student with a disability to derive benefit from special education; includes...


The learning principle that states that when behaviors are immediately followed by a preferred item, activity, or condition then that behavior will...


The process of requesting an evaluation for a student who is suspected of having a disability to determine eligibility for special education and/or...

Receptive Language

Receiving and understanding spoken or written communication; receptive language skills include listening and reading.


The federal legislation governing the education of all handicapped students. PL 94 -142 mandated that all public schools in the U.S. provide “a...

Program Specialist (PS)

A specialist who holds a valid special education credential and has advanced training and related experience in the education of students with...

Procedural Safeguards

Procedural Safeguards must be given to the parents of child with a disability at a minimum (a) Upon initial referral for evaluation; (b) Upon each...


The natural or adoptive parent, guardian, or person appointed to act as a parent for a student.

Other Health Impaired (OHI)

Having limited strength, vitality or alertness, including a heightened alertness to environmental stimuli that results in limited alertness with...

Occupational Therapist (OT)

Professionals trained in helping students address daily living skills, fine motor skills, and sensory issues in 1:1 or small group settings

Nickerson Letter

If a child has not received special education before and is recommended for a self-contained class and the NYDOE fails to provide an appropriate...


Group of professionals from different disciplines who function as a team but perform their roles independent of one another.


Changes to curriculum and assessment that significantly alter the expectations for the student.


A conflict resolution process that can be used to resolve special education issues. Mediation is entered into prior to holding a due process...


Refers to the selective placement of students with disabilities in one or more general education classes and/or other school activities.

Local Educational Agency (LEA)

A local school district, County Office of Education, or approved independent charter school which has the responsibility to provide special...

Least Restrictive Environment (LRE)

The concept in State and Federal law that students with disabilities will be provided special education and related services in a setting which...

Intellectual Disability (ID)

Replaces the term mental retardation; means significantly below average general intellectual functioning, existing concurrently with deficits in...